PSA – Prostate Specific Antigen

PSA, or prostate-specific antigen, is an important indicator for the diagnosis of many male prostate diseases. It is critical that men have regular PSA tests and stay informed about their health. In this article, you will learn more about the PSA’s function as well as its role in early detection of prostate cancer and other health risks.

We want to help you understand what the PSA is all about and why it is so important to your personal prevention efforts. By reading this article, you can find out what tests are recommended and what symptoms to look out for.

What is PSA (prostate-specific antigen)?

Like a common thread, PSA / prostate specific antigen runs through the clinical diagnosis of cancer of the prostate and is therefore indispensable for patients.

PSA is an occult biomarker that is detected in the blood. It is a glycosylated substance whose concentration may be elevated in men with benign enlargement of the prostate or a malignant tumor. PSA can also help as an indicator in dangerous diseases of the genitourinary tract such as kidney or urethral cancer. Therefore, in recent decades it has become a relevant biochemical parameter that is used both diagnostically and for monitoring – especially in the detection of abnormalities, particularly in the early detection of prostate cancer. With the aid of modern examination techniques, PSA can now be used to detect early stages of such tumor-related diseases. The appropriate treatment concept can then be implemented immediately and, if necessary, surgery can be performed. As a result, these measurements significantly increase the survival chances of many patients.

Biochemistry and occurrence

Prostate Specific Antigen / PSA is a glycoprotein released from the prostate into the bloodstream. It plays a critical role in the Immunological Stool Test and can also be found in human hemoglobin. PSA is implicated in many cancers of the colorectal.

A PSA determination involves measuring the amount of this protein in a patient’s blood serum. These include:

  • Immunological stool tests,
  • Human hemoglobin,
  • Colorectal carcinoma.

There are several uses for PSA and it has far-reaching effects on human health.

Therefore, it is very important to understand how to properly measure and analyze this protein. With knowledge of indications for PSA determination, better decisions can be made to reduce or eliminate the risk of certain diseases. Because of its importance, all information about PSA determination should be thoroughly researched.

PSA value of the prostate

The PSA level, measured in nanograms per milliliter of blood, is an important indicator of prostate health. An elevated PSA level can indicate various prostate diseases, including benign prostatic enlargement, which is particularly common as we age.

Continuous monitoring of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the blood is an effective means of timely detection of prostate cancer, which is the most common cancer in healthy men. An increase in PSA levels can be a significant indicator of prostate cancer, requiring further testing to ensure an accurate diagnosis.

It is important that men are aware of the importance of PSA testing and have it done regularly, especially if they are at increased risk for prostate cancer, for example due to a family history of the disease. By detecting changes in PSA levels early, appropriate action can be taken to maintain prostate health and address potential problems early.

A comprehensive evaluation of the PSA level, including consideration of other individual factors, should always be performed by trained medical personnel. Only then can an informed decision be made about further diagnostic measures and treatment approaches to ensure a reliable test result and best protect prostate health.

Now the question arises: How is the PSA value determined?

How the PSA value is determined

To determine the PSA value, blood is drawn from the patient and measured for nanograms per milliliter in the blood. Therefore, it is recommended as a diagnostic method in many guidelines to better investigate and treat possible symptoms of prostate enlargement. The age of the patient also plays a role: the older the man, the higher his PSA level should be.

Thus, with the help of this test, it is possible to determine whether further examinations are necessary and which treatment method is most suitable. However, an increase in the PSA level can also be caused by other conditions, such as inflammation of the prostate, urinary tract infection, or pressure on the prostate organ. Thus, the test is only a guide to diagnosis; further testing is required to make a more accurate diagnosis.

How high should the PSA value be?

The PSA value (prostate specific antigen) can be a good indicator of prostate health. But what does it really tell you about your health?

There are many factors that contribute to whether the PSA level is high or low. Benign enlargement of the prostate and even prostate cancer can raise PSA levels. However, in some cases, the level remains normal – and in others, it rises slightly.

Normal values and control intervals

Normal values:

  • 0 – 2 ng/ml
  • Control intervals: every 6 months

For values between 2 and 4 ng/ml, another test must be done at regular intervals to ensure that there is no abnormal increase in the PSA value.

  • PSA value between 2 and 4 ng/ml
  • Control intervals: every 3 months

An elevated PSA value can be a sign of cancer, but not always, as it can have causes other than disease. Therefore, it is important to discuss tests with your doctor.

  • PSA value > 4 ng/ml
  • Immediate checkup required

With a risk-adjusted PSA test, it is easier to assess the individual’s existing health risks.

Therefore, it is critical to understand what reasons might be influencing this increase. It is important to note that PSA testing alone cannot provide definitive proof of prostate cancer.

The doctor will recommend further tests to find out why you have a high or low reading. These tests will help the doctor make a diagnosis and determine an appropriate course of treatment.

The more information you have about your condition, the better you can act accordingly and achieve better long-term results.

Elevated PSA value due to prostatitis, urinary tract infection or pressure on the prostate.

An elevated PSA level may indicate inflammation of the prostate such as acute prostatitis, urinary tract infection, or pressure on the enlarged prostate due to excessive squeezing. In some cases, this increase in PSA level can also be a sign of prostate cancer. Therefore, it is important to carefully discuss all symptoms and test results with your doctor to have possible conditions diagnosed promptly. However, another reason for an elevated PSA level could be medication or ejaculation. Therefore, in the case of inexplicably high values, it should always be clarified whether there are other causes before one is treated incorrectly in the worst case. With the right information and tests, however, prostate health can be optimally monitored and promoted. With appropriate treatment, symptoms of disease can thus be reduced early and complications minimized.

It is also important to note that the risk of prostate cancer, the most common cancer in men, increases with age. One specific value that is noted in the early detection of prostate cancer is the amount of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the blood, measured in nanograms per milliliter of blood. An elevated level may be indicative of prostate cancer, but this is not necessarily the case, as benign prostate enlargement can also raise this number. In fact, benign prostate enlargement is one of the most common diseases in older age. Therefore, a thorough investigation of the cause is crucial when PSA levels are elevated.

Elevated PSA levels due to medication or ejaculation

As if a warning light were flashing before us, elevated PSA levels sometimes indicate that something is wrong.

An elevation in PSA can be due to a variety of causes:

  • Medication
  • Ejaculation
  • Prostate enlargement
  • Prostate cancer
  • Radical prostatectomy

The obvious thing to do is to find out the responsible cause of the rise in PSA and get it checked out by a doctor. This is especially important because some symptoms of other diseases related to the rise in PSA may be overlooked.

We should do our best to identify potential dangers in time and treat them appropriately – which brings us to the topic of “Interpreting PSA Values Correctly”.

Correctly interpreting PSA values

The PSA level is an important indicator of prostate health and can help detect early signs of prostate cancer or benign prostatic enlargement (BPH). Cost-effectiveness in healthcare plays a critical role in getting the best possible value from medical testing. The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) has issued guidelines recommending that men over the age of 50 should have their PSA levels checked regularly. The German Society of Urology also supports this recommendation as part of screening for cancer of the prostate. It is therefore important to actively have one’s PSA level checked in order to make possible diseases more quickly detectable and treatable – especially in patients with a pre-existing family risk.

Prostate cancer and how it differs from other cancers

The PSA level gives us an indication of prostate health. However, it is important to understand that it is only an indication and cannot make a diagnosis. To get more information about the condition of the prostate, other tests must be performed.

Prostate cancer is different from other types of cancers in that men generally develop the disease before the age of 50. Similarly, prostate cancer often has symptoms such as urinary incontinence or pain during urination, which can sometimes be associated with prostate enlargement, although these are usually harmless changes.

In addition, the blood test for prostate specific antigen (PSA) provides accurate results about the amount of the antigen in the body and can thus help to detect potentially dangerous conditions at an early stage. This procedure is therefore an effective way to detect tumors in the prostate in a timely manner and identify treatment options.

Therefore, the PSA test rules out potential risks at an early stage and thus helps sufferers maintain their health. With the help of this test, we can therefore determine what PSA level is normal and what needs to be considered in order to identify any deviations from the normal value. In this way, the PSA test provides us with a screening test for men of all ages and brings clarity in terms of prostate health.

Indications for a determination of the PSA

PSA determination is usually recommended when there is an increased risk of prostate cancer. An example of this is a patient who has been diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma by stool test.

Increased risk of prostate cancerPSA determination
Colorectal carcinoma (stool test)PSA determination
Age over 50PSA determination
Familial background on prostate cancerPSA determination

However, it is not always possible to decide whether and to what extent individuals with these factors will benefit or be harmed by PSA testing. To determine this, affected individuals should consult their physician or urologist and jointly weigh the pros and cons.

Other tests can also be helpful to better assess individual risk. With the right information, people can make informed decisions to improve their personal well-being.

So next, we look at the methods of measuring prostate specific antigen.

Methods of Measuring PSA

Qualitative detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is mainly done by blood testing. For this purpose, the concentration of human hemoglobin, which increases in men with diseases of the prostate, is determined and thus detected. Alternatively, the so-called FOB stool test can be used. This test is based on the detection of PSA in stool using specialized equipment.

Both tests thus provide different methods of determining the PSA level for the patient, but do not give a direct indication of any disease or condition related to the prostate. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to perform further diagnostics and interpret the results using a reference range and quotient.

Reference range and quotient

Now that we have learned about the measurement methods of prostate specific antigen, let’s look at what its values mean.

Viewed with a poetic flair, the PSA value is:

  1. A sign of immunological stool tests
  2. An indication of colonoscopy
  3. Different concentrations of human hemoglobin
  4. And ultimately, a sense of the condition of the prostate gland

These four facts add to the understanding of why it is so important to have regular tests and carefully review the findings.

The PSA value not only provides information about possible health impairments in the prostate area – it is also subject to a wide variety of variables such as the patient’s age or diet, as well as other external factors.

Thus, a look at the reference range and quotient of the PSA value clearly indicates the complexity and multi-layered nature of the diagnosis of this disease.

Thus, each value manifests a particular story – and thus we now move on to ‘Importance of PSA values’.

Significance of the PSA values

The PSA value is an important indicator to assess the health status of prostate cancer. Therefore, men over the age of 40 should have their PSA levels checked regularly.

The following table shows the reference values for a normal PSA level:

HemoglobinReference value
0-2< 4 ng/ml
2,1–4< 10 ng/ml
>4< 20 ng/ml

An elevated PSA value can indicate malignant disease and therefore helps to detect and treat colorectal cancer at an early stage. Other factors such as age or dietary habits also play a role in determining the optimal value.

Some experts therefore recommend checking the result several times a year to ensure that the value is within the normal range. This allows for the timely detection of possible dangerous changes.

To get a complete picture of your health status, complementary examinations are necessary….

Supplementary Examinations

Like a compass guiding us along the path to our destination, PSA levels have shown us which path to take. But to understand the big picture, complementary investigations are necessary.

These include tests such as fecal occult blood test and fecal hemoglobin. The former test measures the number of red blood cells in your feces and can help identify signs of digestive tract or other organ disease. The latter test helps diagnose certain diseases, such as iron deficiency anemia or stomach ulcer.

In conjunction with the PSA test, these test results can give us further insight and increase the chances of determining whether or not there is a prostate cancer diagnosis. Therefore, we should use all the information to properly assess the situation and act accordingly.


In conclusion, an elevated PSA value does not necessarily indicate prostate cancer. There are many factors that influence the value and therefore it is important to perform further tests to make a diagnosis.

However, the PSA value can be used as an indicator of overall prostate health: A healthy value usually means a healthy organism. Lifestyle changes or various treatments can help to lower the PSA level and thus possibly also reduce the risk of developing cancer – as long as you act early enough and see your doctor in time.

In this context, prostate cancer therapy is adjusted at different stages to achieve the best possible results. Especially for younger men who have elevated levels, early treatment of prostate cancer can be crucial. Therefore, regular screening and counseling for patients with prostate cancer is paramount to improving the quality and longevity of life. A proactive approach can help identify potential risks early and develop adequate treatment strategies. Follow-up by healthcare professionals ensures that the patient’s condition steadily improves and prognosis is optimized.

In other words, the PSA level is an ‘alarming wake-up call’ that urges us to take our prostate health more seriously!

If you are looking for PSA tests and other tumor markers then you have come to the right place! Discover our assortment – Click here to go to our product categories.


What is PSA?

PSA stands for prostate specific antigen, a protein produced by the prostate gland.

What is PSA used for?

PSA is used as a marker for prostate diseases such as prostate cancer or prostate enlargement.

How is PSA measured?

PSA is measured by a blood test.

What is a normal PSA level?

A normal PSA level is usually less than 4 ng/mL (nanograms per milliliter) in the blood. However, PSA levels can vary depending on age and health status.

What are elevated PSA levels?

Elevated PSA levels can be an indicator of prostate disease such as prostate cancer or prostate enlargement. A PSA level above 4 ng/mL may indicate disease, but other factors such as inflammation or infection can also lead to elevated PSA levels.

What factors can affect PSA levels?

PSA levels can be affected by factors such as age, prostate volume, sexual activity, medications, or inflammation.

How often should PSA levels be measured?

The frequency with which PSA levels should be measured depends on age and health status. It is recommended that men age 50 and older have PSA levels measured annually.

How can PSA levels be lowered?

There is no way to lower PSA levels directly. However, a healthy lifestyle and early treatment of prostate disease can help keep PSA levels in the normal range.

What are the risks of a prostate biopsy?

A prostate biopsy can be associated with complications such as bleeding, pain, and infection. It is important to discuss these risks with a doctor before a biopsy is performed.

Are high PSA levels always a sign of prostate cancer?

No, high PSA levels are not always a sign of prostate cancer. There are other causes of elevated PSA levels such as prostate enlargement or inflammation. A prostate biopsy is required to diagnose prostate cancer.

How accurate are PSA levels?

PSA levels are an important indicator to detect the risk of prostate cancer early. Although the test is not always 100% accurate, the precision can be high due to very accurate measurement methods. By using modern technology and advanced analytical techniques, the PSA test provides reliable results in most cases, helping physicians diagnose and treat prostate cancer.

What tests are performed along with a PSA determination?

When it comes to ensuring the accuracy of PSA levels, a combination test of tests is often used.

In addition to PSA determination, a digital rectal examination (DRU) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) are often performed when diagnosing prostate disease. These tests can help identify prostate enlargement, prostatitis, or prostate cancer and determine the need for a biopsy.

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